General

The Spread of the Use of Marijuana from the Arabs to Europe

Note the interesting medical use of the newly emerging marijuana of the Arabs is its efficacy to cure tumors. Ibn Bukhari in the 11th century said that the juice from cannabis leaves could cure ‘abscess’ in the head, Ibn-al-Baytar a century later mentioned the efficacy of oil from medical cannabis seeds to remove hardened tumors (al-awram al-siya). Another note came from Muhammad Riza Shirwani in the 17th century who used medical cannabis seeds for the treatment of tumors in the uterus (Mu’min, 1669).

At the beginning of the 13th century, there was the first ban in the Arab world based on the teachings of Islam regarding the use of marijuana, precisely during the reign of king al-Zahir (Hamarneh, 1957). But a royal doctor named Yusuf ibn Rasul still insisted on using it in medical practice to cure headaches (Lewis et al. 1971).

The use of marijuana as a treatment spread to Europe and even to South America from the Arab countries. The Arabs were the first to introduce the European continent with one of the most important inventions of mankind, namely paper (coincidentally the raw material was the fiber of cannabis stems). The Arabs also mediated the spread of ancient sciences from the Greek and Roman golden ages, one of which was medical science or medicine. In this case, the Arabs have a collection of knowledge of the most effective medicinal properties of medical cannabis plants throughout the world before the 20th century. The following is a list of some of the medical experts listed in the literature who mentioned the efficacy of drugs from marijuana:

Ibn Wafid al-Lajmi (11th century) – Marijuana seeds to increase the production of breast milk & cure the pain of amenorrhea.

Ibn al-Baytar (1291) – Marijuana for smooth urination.
Ishaq b. Sulayman (1986) – Marijuana can warm the body.
Jabir ibn Hayyan (8th century) – Marijuana has psychoactive properties (the book of al-Sumum).
Umar Ibn Yusuf ibn Rasul (13th century) – Cannabis as a headache medicine.
Ibn al-Baytar (1291 AH) – Cannabis seed oil to reduce nerve pain.
Al-Qazwini (1849) – Marijuana juice to reduce pain in inflammation of the eyeball.
Tibbnama (1712) – A collision of cannabis stems and leaves to treat hemorrhoids.
Al-Masi (10th century) – Marijuana for the treatment of epilepsy.
Al-Badri (1464) – Marijuana to treat epilepsy.
Abu Mansur ibn Muwaffak (10th century) – Marijuana to treat headaches
Avicenna (1294) – Juice from cannabis leaves to cure tinea versicolor on the skin.
Al-Razi – Marijuana leaf juice to stimulate hair growth.
Ibn Bukhari (11th century) – Marijuana leaf juice to cure abscesses (tumors) in the head.
Muhammad Riza Shirwani (17th century) – Marijuana seed oil to treat tumors in the uterus.